As usual, the real story is different.
Most of the Blue States have high income taxes and more high earners. Contrary to left wing propaganda, the wealthy pay a great deal of income tax.
So high populations of high earners results in higher amounts of tax revenue from Blue States.
As for the amount of Federal money that the States receive back, that is mostly a function of Federal spending — all done with borrowed money.
Many very expensive Federal projects are built in low-population Red States. This skews the numbers a lot.
So for the most part, the reason that *some* Red States get more Federal tax dollars than *some* Blue States is that the high-population Blue States are overtaxed and the Federal government spends too much on Red States.
And that’s the sandwich without the baloney.